Medical Conditions



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Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids, usually caused by an excess growth of bacteria ordinarily found on the skin. It can lead to itchy, red, and swollen eyelids. 

Dry Eye

Dry eye occurs when the eyes do not produce enough tears or the tears evaporate too quickly, leading to irritation, redness, and blurred vision. Treatment often includes eye drops, lifestyle changes, and, in severe cases, procedures to block tear ducts.


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Ectropion is a condition where the lower eyelid turns outward, failing to properly touch the eyeball, which can cause dryness and irritation. It typically occurs due to tissue relaxation associated with aging, though surgery may be required to correct it.


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In entropion, the eyelid margin turns inward, causing the eyelashes to rub against the cornea, leading to irritation and discomfort. Surgical correction is often necessary to prevent damage to the eye.

Eyelid Deformities

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Eyelid deformities can be congenital or result from trauma or disease, potentially affecting visual function and facial aesthetics. Treatment options vary widely, from surgical intervention to correct the deformity to nonsurgical approaches for milder cases.

Eyelid Lacerations

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Eyelid lacerations are cuts or tears in the eyelid, often caused by trauma, which need careful surgical repair to prevent future functional and cosmetic issues. Prompt medical attention is crucial to ensure optimal healing and function.

Eyelid Cancers

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Eyelid cancers, such as basal cell carcinoma, are relatively common but typically treatable malignancies of the eyelid. They require early detection and treatment. Surgery is the most common treatment, aiming to remove cancerous cells while preserving as much eyelid function as possible.


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Epiblepharon is a condition where an extra fold of skin along the eyelid causes eyelashes to curve inward toward the eye, potentially leading to irritation. It is common in Asian populations and usually resolves on its own, though sometimes surgery is necessary.


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Distichiasis is the abnormal growth of lashes from the oil glands in the eyelid, which can irritate the eye. Treatments may include eyelash removal or surgery.

Styes (Chalazia)

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  • Warm compresses

A stye or chalazion is a blocked oil gland in the eyelid that leads to a swollen, red, and painful lump. Warm compresses and good eyelid hygiene can help manage and resolve styes, though sometimes medical treatment is necessary.

Eyelid Lesions

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Eyelid lesions can vary from benign to malignant growths, with treatment depending on the type. Regular monitoring and, in some cases, surgical removal are recommended.


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Symblepharon is the abnormal adhesion of the eyelid to the eyeball, typically resulting from injury or disease. Treatment often involves surgery to restore normal lid function.


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Trichiasis involves the misdirection of eyelashes toward the eyeball, causing discomfort and potential corneal damage. Treatment options include eyelash removal or corrective surgery.


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Xanthelasma is a yellowish plaque that occurs most commonly near the inner corners of the eyelids and is associated with lipid disorders. Treatment is generally cosmetic and involves surgical removal, laser surgery, or cryotherapy.


Orbital Implants

Orbital implants are used after an eye’s enucleation to replace lost orbital volume and support the attachment of an artificial eye, enhancing cosmetic appearance and eyelid function.

Orbital Tumors

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Orbital tumors can affect all age groups and may present with bulging eyes, vision loss, and changes in eye movement. Treatment varies based on the type and may include surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy.

Orbital Fractures

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Orbital fractures occur around the eye socket due to trauma and can lead to issues like double vision and numbness. Treatment may involve surgical repair, especially if the fracture impacts vision or eye movement.

Graves Ophthalmopathy

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Graves’ ophthalmopathy involves inflammation and other symptoms affecting the eyes, commonly associated with thyroid disease, leading to bulging eyes and vision problems. Treatments may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Thyroid Orbitopathy

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  • Treating thyroid conditions accordingly

Similar to Graves’ ophthalmopathy, this autoimmune inflammatory condition affects the muscles and tissues around the eyes, associated with thyroid problems. Management includes treating the underlying thyroid condition and addressing the eye symptoms specifically.

Tear Duct and Eye Surface

Lacrimal Disorders

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Lacrimal disorders affect the lacrimal system, which is responsible for tear production and drainage. They lead to symptoms like tearing or dry eyes, and treatments range from duct probing to surgery.


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Excessive tearing can arise from irritants, allergies, or obstructions in the tear drainage system. Treatment depends on the cause and may involve medications or surgery to correct any anatomical issues.


Evisceration is the removal of the contents of the eye while leaving the scleral shell and ocular muscles intact. It is often performed to relieve pain in a blind eye or after severe infection or trauma.


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Enucleation involves the surgical removal of the entire eyeball, typically due to severe trauma, painful blind eye, or cancer. Orbital implants and prosthetic eyes help restore facial symmetry post-procedure.


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Enophthalmos is the posterior displacement of the eye within the orbit, often resulting from trauma. It leads to a sunken appearance. Treatment generally focuses on correcting the underlying cause, often requiring surgery.

Mohs Closure

Mohs closure refers to the surgical repair of the eyelid following Mohs micrographic surgery, a procedure used to treat skin cancer with a high cure rate. The repair is essential for restoring function and appearance.

Ocular Rosacea

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  • Topical Medications
  • Lifestyle Modifications

Ocular rosacea is an extension of the skin condition rosacea that affects the eyes, causing redness, irritation, and swollen eyelids. Management includes oral and topical medications and lifestyle modifications.

Canalicular Laceration

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Canalicular laceration involves a tear in the canalicular system, part of the tear drainage system near the eyelids. Surgical repair is necessary to restore proper tear drainage and prevent chronic tearing.